Organizing the true national conference for a new Nigeria

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national conference

There is a trend for celebrities who flaunt grass-to-grace stories of rising from poor background to fame. Mostly, they rise beyond their circumstances because they looked within themselves to discover and develop the greatness inside them. If they had continued depending on other people, they may not have developed their talents to succeed. The ethnic communities and kingdoms colonially merged in Nigeria/Africa may never actualize their potentials for greatness until they attain industrial productivity. So, the colonially-merged peoples will decide on their mode of self-rule and partnership in a true national conference over the dogmatic colonial structure.

Several candidates for Nigerian government offices seek votes by promising to restructure Nigeria. Their ideas of restructuring fluctuates between devolving power to the post-colonially made regions or states without considering the original ethnic communities. They hope that singular governments within regions or states should own and control the resources within the arbitrarily-made boundaries notwithstanding the ethnic communities’ consents. These ideas of restructuring sustain the colonial scheme for denying ethnic communities’ ownership of their lands and resources for productivity. Like the present federal government, states and regional governments will seize and auction various ethnic communities’ resources to industrialized nations for consumer products.

What is national conference?

National conference is a forum in which delegates of different ethnic communities in a country discuss terms and conditions for a productive national alliance. It is like the conferences between the thirteen colonies that later fought to became the independent United States of America.[1] Before and after their independence war, these thirteen colonies discussed and agreed on terms and conditions for their national partnership. The testament of their agreement to terms and conditions for their national partnership is contained in the USA constitution.

Agreements on terms and conditions for partnership through national conferences are essential for productive collaboration and security in any society. For two cannot walk unless they agree,[2] and agreements about future obligations must be cast into writing.[3]

Why does Nigeria require a national conference?

Different groups of people form a prosperous and multi-cultural society by agreeing to collaborate for their security and progress. Nigeria urgently requires a true national conference for several reasons:

  • To reorganize the Nigerian CONSTITUTION for justice and legitimate governance: socio-political constitution is the coming together of various groups of people who work together for their survival and progress.[4] Each group involved pledges to continually contribute materially, intellectually and emotionally to their survival and growth. Harmonious constitutions rise from informed ‘consent of the governed’[5] and survives by the people’s loyalty to their pledges. The book called constitution is just a documentation of the people’s agreement of terms and conditions for working together. While the real CONSTITUTION is the agreement between different peoples to work together for growth and harmonious living. So, without a real agreement among the people, the book is a lie.

Unfortunately, the formerly independent kingdoms and communities in Nigeria never agreed to partner as a country. They have never been given the chance to decide what Nigeria is.[6] Instead, the communities were violently[7] merged for exploitation[8][9] by European colonialists who drew lines on maps of places they had often never been to.[10] The colonialists killed those who resisted[11] and installed laws (book-constitution) to guide the assistants they trained to enforce the colonial plot.[12] Today, Nigerians lack a common conception of nationhood,[13]and the brutally-merged peoples continue fighting one another under colonially-imposed government structure.[14]

Though there are secessionist agitations from few groups, many will prefer a productive Nigeria to violent secession or further breakdown. And even if the partnership does not work, they will still prefer a violence-free disintegration to a colonially-schemed abattoir government. Thus, a national conference becomes urgent for the different ethnic communities to negotiate and create their suitable form of government. This conference will allow the different communities to distinguish themselves, negotiate for partnership and agree to collaborate for progress. The documentation, voting and signing of this agreement will mark the beginning of a legitimate government and constitution in Nigeria.

  • To reorganize Nigeria for productivity and economic progress: wealth is created by applying scientific intelligence on raw materials like agricultural products and mined mineral resources[15][16] before distribution. It is by applying intelligence on crude resources that iron ore becomes metals for cars and other machines; herbs and roots become medicine; trees become paper, books, cloths, food and furniture; rocks become ornaments, glass, ceramics, marble, cement and other building materials; crude oil becomes gas, kerosene, diesel, petrol, agricultural and even pharmaceutical products. It is by consistently creating and exchanging wealth from crude resources that a society becomes prosperous and progressive.

Before the colonialist invasion, each Nigerian community harvested or mined crude resources for producing what they needed. Some communities used their crude resources for producing spears, arrows, cutlasses, traps, hoes, iron-gongs, dane-guns, houses, kernel-pomades and other products. They only needed proper scientific education to industrialize their production processes. Unfortunately, colonialists came with machine-guns to exploit the different communities’ mineral resources that would have been used for creating wealth.

Nigeria’s colonially-imposed government was constitutionally programmed to seize lands[17] and mineral resources.[18][19][20] Thus, different regimes militarily seize and auction any mineral resource found in any community to former colonialists at world market.[21] Since government seizes all mineral resources for export, intelligent Nigerians lack access to resources for creating wealth.

National conference will bring different ethnic communities to discuss and retrieve ownership of their lands and resources for productivity. Then each community trains and employs its natives for production, along with other skilful Nigerians. They will discuss a policy for employing qualified Nigerians first before foreigners. Thus, people who employ foreigners for jobs that can be done by Nigerians may be paying another 50-75 percent of the foreigners’ wage to the government. The monthly 50-75 percent wage will provide industries for the Nigerians they displaced. So, it becomes easier to train and employ Nigerians than to employ foreigners without work-permit.

  • To reorganize Nigeria for cultural renewal and pride: culture is a people’s way of life. It is how different people see themselves and other people, and how they interact with their environment for growth and survival.[22] Culture manifests in people’s beliefs, interpersonal relationships, songs, festivals, education, occupation, food, cloth, values, attitude, language and technology for survival. Through experience and enlightenment, different people discover better methods and tools for solving specific problems in their environment.[23] Eventually, different societies interact with others to share and adapt favourable ideas or method in other cultures. With this intercultural sharing of discovered ideas and methods, humanity advances and the world becomes richer.[24]

What cultural gifts can Nigeria/Africa contribute to enriching and improving the world?

“Africa is given a reputation: poverty, disease, war. But when outsiders go there they are often surprised by Africa’s welcome, entranced rather than frightened. Visitors are welcomed and cared for in Africa. If you go you will find most Africans friendly, gentle and infinitely polite. You will frequently be humbled by African generosity. Africans have in abundance what we call social skills. These are not skills that are formally taught or learned. There is no click-on have-a-nice-day smile in Africa. Africans meet, greet and talk, look you in the eye and empathize, hold hands and embrace, share and accept from others without twitchy self-consciousness. All these things are as natural as music in Africa. Westerners arriving in Africa for the first time are always struck by its beauty and size – even the sky seems higher. And they often find themselves suddenly cracked open. They lose inhibitions, feel more alive, more themselves, and they begin to understand why, until then, they have only half-lived. In Africa the essentials of existence light, earth, water, food, birth, family, love, sickness, death – are more immediate, more intense. Visitors suddenly realize what life is for… Humanity, that is the prize Africa offers the rest of the world.”[25]

Before the advent of colonialism, different kingdoms and communities in the present-day Nigeria had been developing their respective cultures. Yet, like every other culture, they needed to share in the modern ideas and methods of environmental management. They needed ideas on modern industrialization to use their local resources in producing suitable items for their circumstances. However, European colonialists came to violently merge and seize the different people’s natural resources for European industries. They eliminated those who opposed them, and trained few agreeable ones in Common Law to assist in enforcing colonial exploitation.[26]

To instil colonialism in the people’s minds, the colonialists introduced West-oriented education to direct the social, religious and academic institutions. This education-system has three goals:[27]

  • Condition the people to desire foreign products and lifestyle, instead of valuing items relevant to their cultures and environment. People now wear thick suits under hot sun in Nigeria.
  • Structure Nigerian political institutions to seize and export people’s resources that could have been used to produce items relevant to their culture and environment. Thus, instead of collaborating to use resources for local production, Nigerians fight for who auctions seized resources to foreigners. The foreign style of education replaced the communal disposition for industrial collaboration with individualism, for seizing and privatizing communal resources.
  • Train Nigerians to import, count, market, install, prescribe and report products for foreigners, instead of locally producing and exchanging products.[28] Nigerian entrepreneurship means struggling with other Nigerians to find and market foreign products.

“The main purpose of colonial school system was to train Africans to man the local administration at the lowest ranks and to protect private capitalist firms owned by Europeans…”[29] “The educational system still trains people for a lifestyle that is unavailable and unaffordable to most Nigerians… alienates the Nigerian from his environment… In contrast to our pre-colonial education, which was tied to our ways of life.”[30]

The alienating effect of this colonially-introduced education indirectly explains the reason for Boko haram’s rejection of the unproductive western education.[31] It also indicates why many Nigerian youths’ abandon formal education in pursuit of quick-money.[32] When young people are denied access to resources for lucrative productivity, they become desperate and criminal. Presently, the psychological effect of the century-long colonialism makes many Nigerians feel inferior to other races. Thus, many formally ‘educated’ Nigerians seek validation from former colonialists and foreigners in almost everything: fashion, human relationship, cultural-values and lifestyle.

Before the true national conference, each ethnic community will evaluate and choose the cultural values to retain or modify. This evaluation will be guided by the intention of peaceful cohabitation and productive collaboration with other Nigerians. So, they will focus on developing their people’s capacity to use their resources to respond to their culture and environment.

Why not rely on the previous national conferences?

There are claims about several national conferences in Nigeria, and most recently the 2014 national conference. In true national conferences, each community or kingdom is represented by someone they choose to present their positions. The delegate may be chosen by several neighbouring communities in a local government or senatorial district.

Randomly asking 50 Nigerians to name their delegates or positions in the past conferences may shock you. The federal government arbitrarily appointed and payed few individuals to represent people who never chose them. The previous national conferences lacked legitimacy due to several reasons:

  • The delegates in those conferences were selected by federal government, not delegated and instructed by the people they claim to represent. This objection does not justify representation by party-imposed officials in the national assembly.[33]
  • The conferences were restricted from discussing ownership of lands and resources.
  • The federally-appointed delegates were restricted from discussing the political constitution that is misrepresented by a book constitution.

The previous national conferences were not democratic. “In democracy, power develops organically from bottom (people) to top (leaders). But in pseudo-autocracy, power is first seized from a defeated people and given from top (rulers) to down (appointed officers).”[34] Nigerian government came from colonialists, who subdued the different kingdoms and communities before creating the present form of government. The national conference remains ineffective if government officials, whose functions were given by colonialists, continue appointing the delegates. Previous conferences were talk-shows and jamborees lacking legitimacy, since the delegates were handpicked to fit the political officers’ intentions.[35]

Research preceding the true national conference[36]

Presently, there is hardly a realistic data about the number of ethnic communities, kingdoms or people in Nigeria. And efforts to conduct a plausible survey/census has been constantly frustrated due to the system of allocation by population: the more your population on the record, the more your allocation. However, the research for a true national conference will not be based on population for sharing allocation. Instead, it aims to identify the productive capacities (human and materials) of the different ethnic communities and kingdoms in Nigeria. The research-procedure for a new Nigeria is outlined in a previous article: “the social research for a new Nigeria”[37].

Who convenes the true national conference?

A sincere government will arise to conduct the research and to convene the national conference.[38]

Who are the people to negotiate in the national conference?

Presently, there are 109 senatorial districts that cover the different communities, kingdoms and local governments in Nigeria. The different kingdoms and communities within these senatorial districts will discuss and choose their conference delegates.[39] These discussions within ethnic communities will mark the foundation of Nigeria’s internal democracy. Some kingdoms are small, while some are large or moderate. Smaller kingdoms within a local government can discuss and choose a delegate to represent them in the local government. Then the delegates from different local governments will choose a final delegate among themselves to represent their district in the national conference.

These delegates are answerable to the kingdoms and communities that chose them, and not some party politicians. Hence, they are to be in consistent electronic communication with the communities that sent them. They are to submit reports and get verifiable feedback from the people that sent them. And the delegates can be replaced in the conference if they stray from the people’s interest. After the conference, the delegate-seat may be formalized and tenured for further inter-community liaison.

Issues for deliberation and agreement in the conference

Production, administration and security are 3 aspects of social development

1. PRODUCTION – INDUSTRIALIZATION

We noted that people create wealth by applying scientific knowledge on environmental resources for producing useful items. Every ethnic community in Nigeria has both human and material resources[40] for creating wealth through production. But using the Nigerian Mineral and Mining Act, Nigeria’s pseudo-autocratic government seizes all lands with tradeable resources for export. Also, using the Land-Use-Act, government takes people’s ancestral lands without consent. This deprivation of people’s lands and mineral resources leads to unproductivity and poverty in Nigeria.

Land ownership

The conference will discuss and formally recognize indigenous land/resource ownership by families, clans, communities or kingdoms. Afterwards, people who wish to merge their land with other people in the same state or region can do so. Also those who wish to submit their lands/resources for joint government ownership can do so. With the formal recognition of the people’s ownership of their lands, these lands will be registered and maybe taxed. Then people will no longer need governor-issued certificates of occupancy to obtain development loans. They simply have to notify their local government before any land-sale, lease or mortgage. Hence, government will provide both physical and electronic registers for confirming who owns which land.

People whose lands had been seized and used by government for some project deserve justice for the robbery. Yet, they won’t demolish the structure that are already established for commercial or service purpose. Instead, the companies or bodies occupying the seized lands will renegotiate percentile-shares in the investment with the displaced land-owners. The offshore mineral resources could then be owned and fully managed by the government as common property for all Nigerians.

Licensing, production, safety, quality control and exchange within before away

When people officially own their lands, they will desire to start producing the items they need or trade. Then, they can seek loans from government or investors (foreign or local) to site relevant industries for their resources. Even if they lack skills for processing their resources or using their lands, they can partner with other skilful Nigerians. However, without an organized pattern or measure for production and exchange, there may be an industrial disorder. So, like drivers needing license to drive their cars, land-owners will meet specific criteria before production. These criteria may include:

  • Evidence of team’s professional qualification and capacity.
  • Evidence of technical and financial capacity (loan or investors) to support the firm.
  • Evidence of staff legal status: to avoid human exploitation, no Nigerian will be employed without having a legal backup.[41] This is to legally prevent employer or employee irresponsibility.
  • Evidence of eco-safety measures. This is to prevent environmental pollution and industrial hazard.
  • Readiness to undergo periodic inspection for quality control, staff welfare, consumer protection and corporate social responsibility.[42]

The industrial pattern will primarily support mass-producing materials for light and heavy machines and engines for construction, agriculture and manufacturing. Then, the extracted and processed raw materials will be sold to Nigerian producers first, before exportation: charity begins at home.

To avoid haphazard industrialization, different people whose lands contain similar resources could form corporations for primary industrial estates. And those required to halt production in order to maintain industrial balance could receive periodic stipends from government. With more production level, government will consider increasing import duties to encourage local patronage.

Tax contribution for running the government

In the conference, they will discuss tax-percentage for individual producers, workers, local and foreign firms (20-40). Specific tax-percentages go differently to local, state and federal governments mainly for health, education, industry and banks, then security, inter/intra-state road connection. Secondary industries become important to use the extracted and processed crude resources for finished good. Then, tech-gurus can create websites for Nigerians to market their raw materials within.

2. GOVERNANCE – ADMINISTRATION 

Business owners give job description to their employees, and not the other way round. Since members of different ethnic communities jointly employ government officers to SERVE, the communities should provide the job description.[43] If politicians continue with the primary job description from former colonial masters, then Nigerians cannot claim to have obtained independence. Then, the first sentence in the Nigerian constitution, “we the people of the federal republic of Nigeria”[44] remains a lie.

Legislative: is the body through which converging people discuss issues and make laws to guide them towards harmonious productivity. The person who is elected or appointed to represent the people does not become superior or unaccountable to those who appointed him/her. Instead, like lawyers representing clients, elected persons only represent the interest of the people that sent them.

Nigerian legislative developed from the colonial parliament that appointed few people to represent thousands of communities without consultation or consent.[45] The representatives’ roles were purely advisory to British governors-general, and not to defend the people’s interests in law making.[46] Their inclusion was just to give the impression that the exploitative laws came with the indigenes’ support. This is why Nigerians have not made real progress on the colonial foundation for legislation. Instead, politicians who replaced the colonial offices sit on the exploitative foundation laid by colonialists.

Authentic governing powers flow from individuals as members of families, then communities, local governments, states before country. The ethnic communities are the first custodians of the peoples’ cultures, values and wellbeing, with deep influence on their people. Since legislation is an instrument through which different converging people make laws for themselves, ethnic communities will be more involved in the process. Hence, ethnic communities will set conditions to ensure that senators represent the wishes of the communities they claim to represent. Some of these conditions include:

  • Before a major legislation or plenary, senators must physically or electronically explain and consult the ethnic community delegates. Using BVN or any other means they decide, the people will adopt a position by maybe two-third or any chosen quota. Any serious derailment from the communities’ position by a senator amounts to betrayal that can lead to removing the senator from office. The senator may be probed or jailed for any criminal cause for such betrayal like bribery or favouritism.
  • Senators will live in the districts they represent to feel whatever the people are feeling.
  • They will provide quarterly reports to the ethnic communities in the districts they represent.
  • Their salaries will become equal to 10-20 times whatever minimum wage obtainable within their senatorial districts. The pensions may stay around 3-7 times the minimum wage in their districts. Hence, senators cannot just appropriate arbitrary salaries and terrifying allowances to themselves using RMAFC. Also, SERVING Nigeria as a legislator is not by force.
  • The constituency project funds given to legislators will cease. Legislation is for making laws, not for executing projects. Hence, the constituency project funds will be allocated to the constituencies directly. These funds will be jointly supervised by federal ministry branches and ethnic community delegates. And the projects will be audited every two years by separate auditing firms.[47]
  • There may be no need for House of Representatives, since the senatorial districts cover the whole.
  • The state assemblies will be modified according to community delegates within local governments.

With these measures, Nigerians will be directly involved in the country’s direction and governance.

Executive: is the branch through which the people execute their agreement (laws) for collaborative productivity and progress. The executive consists of federal, state and local government. And they perform different functions which include: providing amenities, finance, internal security, regulations, national defence, law-enforcement, policy development, debt and external affairs liaison. To boost local productivity and technological development, the executive ensures that 65-80% of amenities come from local productivity. National development is building people’s capacity to collaborate in providing their needs. It is not using foreigners to build roads or install foreign depreciating assets.[48]

Many regulatory functions of the executive may not change. The main change is that executive will no longer claim ownership of the people’s lands and resources. Nor will they arbitrarily seize, export or auction people’s lands and resources. Instead, they will generate funds by taxing the people’s profits, income and foreign luxury consumption. Then, communities or individuals will provide lands for other development projects after discussing price, shareholding percentage or tax-waiver with government. Before annual budgets, executive government presents audited fiscal accounts to the people.

As political aspirants seek to serve, they will face real interviews by their employers – the people. And the salary will be pegged at an agreed percentage according to the minimum wage obtainable in the country. Officers using public funds to execute projects may not add their faces on public projects.

JUDICIARY: is the organ through which the people establish justice in the society. The judgments given in courts do not belong to the judiciary. Instead, they are the people’s agreement which have been codified as laws. And when judgments go contrary to the people’s agreement, it ceases to be true or binding on the people.

To avoid executive manipulation of the judiciary, the national conference will agree on minimum wage percent-range for the judiciary. Though the executive is in charge of disbursing funds, it will be illegal to alter or delay the judiciary’s funds. Also, the judicial body elects their leaders, instead of depending on executive appointment of judiciary leaders.

3. SECURITY

National security involves both the internal maintenance of law and order, and national defence from external attacks. In a previous article, we discussed how Nigeria can manage internal law enforcement through police reform.[49] In another article, we discussed how Nigeria can defend herself from external attacks by reordering Nigerian military for a new Nigeria.[50] We noted that the internal and external security apparatus were not originally formed to promote productivity in Nigeria. Instead, they were formed to contain the people from revolting against the exploitation of their lands and resources.[51]

To ensure security for productivity, the national conference will adopt policies for initially developing a federal police from community police. Also, a policy for the military to grow from recruiting specific number of certified young persons from each community. Also, the internal leadership of the military grows from elections within the military, not executive appointment of friends and sycophants. For success in a security apparatus is dependent on the personnel’s confidence in the commander they elect.[52] And when a multi-ethnic country’s security is totally controlled from the central, it becomes easily twistable for tribal or religious interests.  

What will be the outcome of the national conference?

A new constitution will be the result. Constitution is a covenant of duty between members of a society to collaborate for their safety, development and satisfaction.[53] Governments derive their legitimacy from the free consent of the governed codified in a constitution to guide the collaboration between people for common good.[54] The people’s discussion and agreement forms the foundation.

How often should there be a national conference?

Subject to the people’s agreement through their delegates, it could happen once every 8 or 10 years. It is like a meeting of board of directors/shareholders (ethnic communities), whose business is managed by employees (government officials).

SECESSION

No ethnic group, community or kingdom will prefer to leave a just and progressive Nigeria. Once each individual, community or kingdom can manage their lands/resources and pay tax, there may never be any secessionist agitation.

The beauty and strength that can arise from harmonizing Nigeria’s different peoples will be glorious. Hence, the national conference will focus on harmonizing the different communities for the socio-economic salvation of the black man. For only “a successful Nigeria could transform the continent in the twenty-first century… In business, law, science, arts, literature, music, sports, Nigeria produces phenomenally talented individuals as if it’s superheated society throws up brighter, hotter human beings than anywhere else.”[55] “Even in the worst of times you do not hear the tones of doom and despair that characterize some western media reports on the state of Africa.”[56] Nigeria always has hope and will extend this reviving hope to the rest of Africa and all subjugated blacks everywhere.

“NO GUTS, NO GLORY” is a Nigerian Army dictum applicable to the different ethnic communities and kingdoms. Without the guts to look inwards and develop themselves, the different communities may never get the glory of modern development. Instead, they will remain mentally-caged in the colonially imposed notion of common-wealth. This is a distractive notion of dependence on foreign consumer products in exchange of other people’s crude resources. And as Nigerians fight for who seizes and auctions other people’s resources, foreigners applaud and reward them with non-regenerating and quick-depreciating assets and consumer products.


[1] Oladele Fadeiye, Essays on modern world history (Lagos: Murfat publications, 2009), p.8-15

[2] Amos 3:3

[3] Al Baqarah 282

[4] Bola Ige, 1991

[5] Cf. Ayn Rand, The Nature of Government, https://campus.aynrand.org/works/1963/12/01/the-nature-of-government/page2

[6] cf. Richard Dowden, Africa altered states, ordinary miracles. (New York: Public Affairs, 2010). p.445

[7] Oladele Fadeiye, European conquest and African resistance (Lagos: Murfat publications, 2011) pp.64-65

[8] Cf. Richard Dowden, Africa altered states, ordinary miracles. (New York: Public Affairs, 2010). p3

[9] Ogban Ogban-Iyan, “Re-inventing Nigeria through Pre-colonial traditions”, in Issues in contemporary political economy of Nigeria, (ed.) Hassan A. Saliu. (Ilorin, Sally & Associates, 1999). P77

[10] Cf. Richard Dowden, op. cit. p.3

[11] Oladele Fadeiye, European conquest and African resistance (Lagos: Murfat publications, 2011) pp.64-65

[12] Walter Rodney, How Europe underdeveloped Africa, 2009 edition (Abuja: Panaf press, 2009) p.317-319

[13] Richard Dowden, op. Cit. p.3

[14] Lee Kwan Yew, From third world to first (USA: HarperCollins, 2000), p.357

[15] Walter Rodney, op. cit. p.23

[16] Henry Hazlitt, op. cit. p.149

[17] 29th March 1978, Land use act. P7

[18] Nigerian minerals and mining act 2007 act no. 20, chapter 1, Part 1, Section 1, paragraph 2 “… all lands in which minerals have been found in Nigeria and any area covered by its territorial waters or constituency and the Exclusive Economic Zone shall, from the commencement of this Act be acquired by the Government of the Federation…”  “No person shall search for or exploit mineral resources in Nigeria or divert or impound any water for the purpose of mining except as provided in this Act.”  “The property in mineral resources shall pass from the Government to the person by whom the mineral resources are lawfully won, upon their recovery in accordance with this Act.”

[19] Nigerian minerals and mining act 2007 act no. 20, chapter 1, Part 1, Section 2, paragraph 1

[20] Nigerian minerals and mining act 2007 act no. 20, chapter 1, Part 1, Section 1, paragraph 3

[21] C.f. A. M. Babu, “Postscript” in Walter Rodney, op. cit., p.350. Given at Dar es Salam, Tanzania, December 1971

[22] Cf. https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/culture/culture_1.htm retrieved 07-02-2018

[23] Cf. Battista Mondin, Philosophical Anthropology (Rome: Urbania University press, 2007), p.145

[24] Cf. Ademola J. Ajuwon, Research Designs, M.sc Bioethics lecture, 5th September, 2016. University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state.

[25] Cf. Richard Dowden, op. Cit. p.1-2

[26] Walter Rodney, op. cit. p.317-319

[27] Cf. Walter Rodney, op. cit. 293-297

[28] Adefolarin Malomo, M.sc Bioethics lecture, 23rd March, 2017. University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state.

[29] Walter Rodney, … p.293

[30] Ogban Ogban-Iyam, Re-Inventing Nigeria through Pre-colonial Traditions In Issues in contemporary political economy of Nigeria.edited by Hassan A. Saliu.(Ilorin: T.A. Olayeri press, 1999). P73

[31] Wikipedia, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boko_Haram

[32] Cf. Lucy Nmawuese Jonah, Choice (Lagos: Amazon publications, 2001), pp28-31

[33] Ben Nwabueze, Save Nigeria Project… p.12

[34] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “Reordering the military for a new Nigeria” in Restartnaija 8th January, 2019. https://restartnaija.com/2019/01/08/reordering-military-new-nigeria/ retrieved 30th January, 2019.

[35] Ben Nwabueze, Save Nigeria Project

[36] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “The social research for a new Nigeria” in Restartnaija June 5, 2018. https://restartnaija.com/2018/06/05/social-research-new-consented-nigeria/ retrieved 22nd July, 2018

[37] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “The social research for a new Nigeria” in Restartnaija June 5, 2018. https://restartnaija.com/2018/06/05/social-research-new-consented-nigeria/ retrieved 22nd July, 2018

[38] Restartnaija videos, episode 12.  https://youtu.be/hYx1QqiXUlo

[39] The delegate could be a traditional ruler among the communities, or an eloquent person that can express the people’s thoughts

[40] Adebayo. O. Oshorun, Nations and states industrialisation (Oyo: Ethical Financial & Investment consultants ltd, 2013), p.69-80

[41] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “Modern slavery in the corporate world” in Restartnaija. https://restartnaija.com/2018/05/19/corporate-slave-labour-nigeria/ retrieved 9th January, 2019.

[42] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “Ensuring consumer protection for standard living in Nigeria” in Restartnaija. https://restartnaija.com/2018/10/02/consumer-protection-for-standard-living/ retrieved 9th January, 2019.

[43] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “reordering Nigerian civil government for a new Nigeria” in Restartnaija.

[44] Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2011 as amended,

[45] Chris C. Dibie, Essential government (Lagos: Tonad publishers ltd, 2012), p.166.

[46] Chris C. Dibie, Essential government (Lagos: Tonad publishers ltd, 2012), p.166.

[47] Cf. Samuel Nzekwe, “External auditors of banks are equally guilty” in Sunday Tribune, 23 August, 2009, p.3

[48] Francis Ogbimi, Solution to mass unemployment in Nigeria (Ile-Ife: OAU press, 2007) p.34-36

[49] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “Police reform: role of police in a new Nigeria” in Restartnaija, 27th February, 2018. https://restartnaija.com/2018/02/27/police-reform-role-police-new-nigeria/ retrieved 15th January, 2019.

[50] Chukwunwike Enekwechi, “Reordering Nigerian military for a new Nigeria” in Restartnaija, 8th January, 2019. https://restartnaija.com/2019/01/08/reordering-military-new-nigeria/  retrieved 15th January, 2019.

[51] T. A. Imobighe, Nigeria’s defence and national security linkages (Ibadan: Heinemann books, 2003) p.128

[52] Cf. Dan Senor and Saul Singer, Startup nation (New York: Twelve, 2011), p.63

[53] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_(polity)

[54] Cf. Ayn Rand, The Nature of Government, https://campus.aynrand.org/works/1963/12/01/the-nature-of-government/page2

[55] Richard Dowden, op. Cit.p 441

[56] Richard Dowden, op. Cit. p.4